CATALINA_HOME refers to the path of your Tomcat installation. In Unix, you should refer it as $CATALINA_HOME, while in Windows it will be referred as %CATALINA_HOME%.
AJP it's a protocol to connect Apache with a Java Application Server, like Tomcat.
If you don't plan to use Apache in front of Tomcat, disable AJP. Open the CATALINA_HOmE/conf/server.xml file and disable this line:
<!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 --> <!-- Connector port="8009" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" / -->
Autodeploy means that every web application created under CATALINA_HOME/webapps is automatically deployed; every JSP compiled, etc. This is not necessary for production sites for two reasons: 1) it burdens the load of Tomcat checking every X seconds if new content has dropped and 2) it could be potentially dangerous if a hacker can put new content into this directory.
To disable it, open CATALINA_HOME/conf/server.xml and locate this:
<Host name="localhost" appBase="webapps" unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">
and put a false in the attributes
<Host name="localhost" appBase="webapps" unpackWARs="false" autoDeploy="false">